Science posts

See science posts on page 36 below.

    • 2009
    • Luiz Pessoa
    • How do emotion and motivation direct executive control?
    • Emotion and motivation have crucial roles in determining human behavior. Yet, how they interact with cognitive control functions is less understood. Here, the basic elements of a conceptual framework for understanding how they interact are introduced. More broadly, the ‘dual competition’ framework proposes that emotion and motivation affect both perceptual and executive competition. In particular, the anterior cingulate cortex is hypothesized to be engaged in attentional/effortful control mechanisms and to interact with several other brain structures, including the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, in integrating affectively significant signals with control signals in prefrontal cortex. An implication of the proposal is that emotion and motivation can either enhance or impair behavioral performance depending on how they interact with control functions.
    • 2010
    • Soghra Akbari Chermahini et al.
    • The (b)link between creativity and dopamine: Spontaneous eye blink rates predict and dissociate divergent and convergent thinking
    • Human creativity has been claimed to rely on the neurotransmitter dopamine, but evidence is still sparse. We studied whether individual performance (N = 117) in divergent thinking (alternative uses task) and convergent thinking (remote association task) can be predicted by the individual spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), a clinical marker of dopaminergic functioning. EBR predicted flexibility in divergent thinking and convergent thinking, but in different ways. The relationship with flexibility was independent of intelligence and followed an inverted U-shape function with medium EBR being associated with greatest flexibility. Convergent thinking was positively correlated with intelligence but negatively correlated with EBR, suggesting that higher dopamine levels impair convergent thinking. These findings support the claim that creativity and dopamine are related, but they also call for more conceptual differentiation with respect to the processes involved in creative performance.
    • 1983
    • Authors Karson CN
    • Spontaneous eye-blink rates and dopaminergic systems.
    • A series of studies demonstrated a possible relationship between eye-blink rate and central dopamine activity. First, apomorphine and other dopamine agonists acutely increased blink rate in monkeys, an effect blocked by sulpiride. Secondly, parkinsonian patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia exhibited twice the mean blink rate (21 blinks/min) of other parkinsonians (11 blinks/min, P less than 0.002) whereas the more symptomatic of the nondyskinetic patients had a very slow rate (3 blinks/min, P less than 0.01). Thirdly, schizophrenic patients had an elevated mean blink (31 vs 23 blinks/min for normals, P less than 0.05) which was normalized by neuroleptic treatment. Thus, the correlation with central dopamine activity may also prove clinically useful in selected neuropsychiatric disorders.
    • 2002
    • Michael J. Kane et al.
    • The role of prefrontal cortex in working-memory capacity, executive attention, and general fluid intelligence: An individual-differences perspective
    • We provide an “executive-attention” framework for organizing the cognitive neuroscience research on the constructs of working-memory capacity (WMC), general fluid intelligence, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. Rather than provide a novel theory of PFC function, we synthesize a wealth of singlecell, brain-imaging, and neuropsychological research through the lens of our theory of normal individual differences in WMC and attention control (Engle, Kane, & Tuholski, 1999; Engle, Tuholski, Laughlin, & Conway, 1999). Our critical review confirms the prevalent view that dorsolateral PFC circuitry is critical to executive-attention functions. Moreover, although the dorsolateral PFC is but one critical structure in a network of anterior and posterior “attention control” areas, it does have a unique executiveattention role in actively maintaining access to stimulus representations and goals in interference-rich..
    • 2005
    • Joel L. Voss et al.
    • Fluent Conceptual Processing and Explicit Memory for Faces Are Electrophysiologically Distinct
    • Implicit memory and explicit memory are fundamentally different manifestations of memory storage in the brain. Yet, conceptual fluency driven by previous experience could theoretically be responsible for both conceptual implicit memory and aspects of explicit memory. For example, contemplating the meaning of a word might serve to speed subsequent processing of that word and also make it seem familiar. We examined electrophysiological correlates of conceptual priming with 180 celebrity faces to determine whether or not they resemble electrophysiological correlates of explicit memory. Celebrity faces are ideal for this purpose because they carry with them preexisting conceptual information (i.e., biographical facts) that can selectively be brought to mind such that conceptual processing can be manipulated systematically. In our experiment, exposure to biographical information associated with only one-half of the celebrities yielded conceptual priming for those faces, whereas all faces ..
    • 1996
    • Blaxton, Teresa A et al.
    • Functional mapping of human memory using PET: Comparisons of conceptual and perceptual tasks.
    • Tested whether different neurological regions subserved the conceptual and perceptual memory components by using positron emission tomography (PET). Regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) of 14 Ss (mean age 25 yrs) during 2 conceptual tasks of semantic cued recall and semantic association was compared to a control condition in which Ss made semantic associations to nonstudied words. RCBF during 2 perceptual tasks of word fragment cued recall and word fragment completion was also compared to a word fragment nonstudied control condition. There were clear dissociations in RCBF that reflected differences in brain regions subserving the 2 types of memory processes. Conceptual processing produced more activation in the left frontal and temporal cortex and the lateral aspect of the bilateral inferior parietal lobule. Perceptual memory processing activated the right frontal and temporal cortex and the bilateral posterior areas. (French abstract)
    • 2003
    • Carl E. Schwartz et al.
    • Inhibited and Uninhibited Infants "Grown Up": Adult Amygdalar Response to Novelty
    • Infants with an inhibited temperament tend to develop into children who avoid people, objects, and situations that are novel or unfamiliar, whereas uninhibited children spontaneously approach novel persons, objects, and situations. Behavioral and physiological features of these two temperamental categories are moderately stable from infancy into early adolescence and have been hypothesized to be due, in part, to variation in amygdalar responses to novelty. We found that adults who had been categorized in the second year of life as inhibited, compared with those previously categorized as uninhibited, showed greater functional MRI signal response within the amygdala to novel versus familiar faces.
    • 2002
    • Jerome Kagan
    • Biology, Context, and Developmental Inquiry
    • This chapter summarizes some of the conceptual changes in developmental research over the last half-century. These advances include an acknowledgment of the role of maturation; also recognized have been the need for positing distinct psychological structures, the influence of temperament, the malleability of the infant, the role of the local context, and the dynamic nature of the categories describing human psychological types.
    • 2005
    • Gram, Peter C et al.
    • Relationship Between EEG and Psychological Type
    • This study investigated the relationship between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®) personality types and cortical activity. Cortical activity was measured by recording eyes-open EEG across bandwidths from 1 Hz to 39 Hz at 19 cortical sites. The findings in the alpha bandwidth were generally congruent with Eysenck's biological theory of extraversion-introversion. Furthermore, participants showed specific and different patterns of cortical activity associated with each of the other MBTI dimensions in the various bandwidths.
    • 2015
    • Jing Jiang et al.
    • Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization
    • Great leaders are often great communicators. However, little is known about the neural basis of leader–follower communication. Only recently have neuroscientists been able to examine interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) between leaders and followers during social interactions. Here, we show that INS is significantly higher between leaders and followers than between followers and followers, suggesting that leaders emerge by synchronizing their brain activity with that of the followers. Moreover, the quality rather than frequency of the leaders’ communications makes a significant contribution to the increase of INS. This result supports the “quality of communication” hypothesis in leader emergence. Finally, our results show that leadership can be predicted shortly after the onset of a task based on INS as well as communication behaviors.

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