Science posts

See science posts on page 9 below.

    • 2007
    • Incheol Choi et al.
    • Individual Differences in Analytic Versus Holistic Thinking
    • The authors constructed the Analysis-Holism Scale (AHS) to measure analytic versus holistic thinking tendency. In Study 1, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, a 24-item scale was developed. In Study 2, convergent and discriminant validities were tested. In Studies 3 and 4, the known-group difference validity was examined by comparing scores on the AHS of Americans and Koreans (Study 3) and of Korean students of Oriental medicine and Korean students of non-Oriental medicine majors (Study 4). Results of Studies 3 and 4 show that Koreans and Korean students of Oriental medicine scored higher on the AHS than did Americans and Korean students of non-Oriental medicine majors, respectively. Studies 5 and 6 tested predictive validity by examining associations of the AHS with performances on two cognitive tasks (categorization and causal reasoning). Data analysis shows that those with high scores on the AHS displayed the holistic pattern of performances on each task more than ..
    • 2005
    • N. Mashal et al.
    • The role of the right hemisphere in processing nonsalient metaphorical meanings: Application of Principal Components Analysis to fMRI data
    • Some researches indicate that the right hemisphere (RH) has a unique role in comprehending the figurative meaning of metaphors whereas the results of other studies do not support the notion of a selective role for the RH in accessing metaphorical meanings. The present research used fMRI technology to test a theoretical explanation of the above conflicting findings. This theoretical account is derived from the Graded Salience Hypothesis (GSH) [Giora, R. (1997). Understanding figurative and literal language: The Graded Salience Hypothesis. Cognitive Linguistics, 7, 183–206; Giora, R. (2003). On our mind: Salience, context and figurative language. New York: Oxford University Press], according to which the degree of meaning salience, rather than literality or nonliterality primarily affects differences between the LH and RH in linguistic processing. Thus, the GSH predicts a selective RH involvement in comprehension of novel, nonsalient metaphoric meanings and LH involvement in ..
    • 2009
    • Roy F. Baumeister et al.
    • Prosocial Benefits of Feeling Free: Disbelief in Free Will Increases Aggression and Reduces Helpfulness
    • Laypersons' belief in free will may foster a sense of thoughtful reflection and willingness to exert energy, thereby promoting helpfulness and reducing aggression, and so disbelief in free will may make behavior more reliant on selfish, automatic impulses and therefore less socially desirable. Three studies tested the hypothesis that disbelief in free will would be linked with decreased helping and increased aggression. In Experiment 1, induced disbelief in free will reduced willingness to help others. Experiment 2 showed that chronic disbelief in free will was associated with reduced helping behavior. In Experiment 3, participants induced disbelief in free will caused participants to act more aggressively than others. Although the findings do not speak to the existence of free will, the current results suggest that disbelief in free will reduces helping and increases aggression.
    • 1996
    • Michael J. Garvey et al.
    • Preliminary confirmation of the proposed link between reward-dependence traits and norepinephrine
    • he tridimensional theory of personality posits that traits belonging to a personality spectrum called ‘reward dependence’ are determined in part by the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE). We hypothesized that urinary levels of the NE metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) would be significantly correlated to the reward dependence score on the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Twenty-seven never psychiatrically ill subjects collected urine for MHPG measurements and completed the TPQ. There was a significant correlation between the reward dependence score and the level of MHPG. MHPG level was not associated with the other two personality dimensions, novelty seeking and harm avoidance. This preliminary study supports the hypothesis that reward-dependence traits are in part determined by NE.
    • 2001
    • Tahir Tellioglu et al.
    • Genetic or acquired deficits in the norepinephrine transporter: current understanding of clinical implications
    • The norepinephrine transporter (NET) has a major role in terminating the neurochemical signal established by the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the synaptic cleft. The NET is also the initial site of action for therapeutic antidepressants, and drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines. Polymorphisms in the NET gene have been identified, and associations with several disorders such as depression have been proposed but not established. However, evidence of a direct association between a genetic mutation of the NET and an autonomic clinical syndrome has recently emerged. A patient and her identical twin were evaluated for typical symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI), a disorder mainly characterised by elevated heart rate on standing, and both were found to have clinical and laboratory signs of abnormal uptake of NE. Sequence analysis of the patients' NET gene identified a mutation that resulted in more than 98% loss of function as compared with the wild-type gene. This article..
    • 2000
    • Marvin Zuckerman, D. Michael Kuhlman
    • Personality and Risk-Taking: Common Biosocial Factors
    • The first part of this article describes a study of the relationships between personality and risk-taking in six areas: smoking, drinking, drugs, sex, driving, and gambling. The participants, 260 college students, were given self-report measures of risky behaviors in each of the six areas and the Zuckerman- Kuhlman five-factor personality questionnaire. Generalized risk-taking (across all six areas) was related to scales for impulsive sensation seeking, aggression, and sociability, but not to scales for neuroticism or activity. Gender differences on risk-taking were mediated by differences on impulsive sensation seeking. The second part discusses biological traits associated with both risk-taking and personality, particularly sensation seeking, such as the D4 dopamine receptor gene, the enzyme monoamine oxidase, and augmenting or reducing of the cortical evoked potential. Comparative studies show relationships between biological markers shared with other spe..
    • 2007
    • W. F. Gattaz and H. Beckmann
    • Platelet MAO activity and personality characteristics
    • Low levels of platelet monoamine oxidase have been found in schizophrenic and bipolar depressive patients. The enzyme activity seems to correlate negatively with certain personality traits (social activity, sensation seeking, hypomania, positive affect and monotony avoidance) which are correlated to some extent with the score “extraversion” from the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The present study was carried out in an attempt to investigate further the possible correlation between platelet MAO activity and the personality traits measured by the EPQ. 41 schizophrenic patients and 20 healthy probands were blindly examined for platelet MAO activity and personality characteristics. The enzyme activity was found to correlate negatively with the extra-version score in patients and healthy probands, which is in agreement with the data from other studies. This correlation is discussed and a hypothesis suggested.
    • 1987
    • Af Klinteberg B. et al.
    • Personality Correlates of Platelet Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Activity in Female and Male Subjects
    • Associations between platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and scale scores from the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy inventory and the Karolinska Scales of Personality were studied in 32 female and 29 male students (age range 17–19 years). There were significant negative correlations between MAO activity and extra version-related scales for male subjects; in the female group the correlations were also negative but nonsignificant. When comparing subgroups with low, intermediate, and high platelet MAO activity subjects, consistent trends were observed in the direction of higher scores in the impulsivity scales, the sensation seeking-related Monotony avoidance scale, and the Indirect Aggression scale for both female and male low MAO activity groups
    • 2008
    • Ulrich Ettinger et al.
    • Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Genotype is Associated with BOLD Response as a Function of Task Characteristic
    • The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met single nucleotide polymorphism (rs4680) has been shown to be associated with brain activation during a number of neurocognitive and emotional tasks. The present study evaluated genotypic associations with brain function during measurement of cognitive stability (prosaccades) and plasticity (antisaccades). A total of 36 healthy volunteers were genotyped for rs4680 and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 1.5 T. Individuals with at least one val158 allele (val158 carriers, N=24) showed lower blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in ventromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during antisaccades compared to val158 noncarriers, whereas met158 homozygotes (N=12) showed lower BOLD response in a cluster in the posterior cingulate and precuneus during prosaccades compared to val158 carriers. These findings suggest that associations of COMT val158met genotype with brain function may be mediated by task cha..
    • 2014
    • Michael S. Vendetti et al.
    • Far-Out Thinking Generating Solutions to Distant Analogies Promotes Relational Thinking
    • Is it possible to induce a mind-set that will affect relational thinking in a subsequent reasoning task involving unrelated materials? We investigated whether evaluating the validity of verbal analogies (Experiment 1a) or generating solutions for them (Experiment 1b) could induce a relational mind-set that would transfer to an unrelated picture-mapping task. The verbal analogies were based on either near or far semantic relations. We found that generating (but not evaluating) solutions for semantically distant analogies increased the proportion of relational mappings on the transfer task, even after we controlled for fluid intelligence and response time. Solving near analogies did not produce transfer. Generation of solutions to far analogies appears to provide a potent method for triggering a mind-set that can enhance relational thinking in a different task.