Science posts

See science posts on page 24 below.

    • 2002
    • Jean-Claude Dreher et al.
    • An integrative theory of the phasic and tonic modes of dopamine modulation in the prefrontal cortex
    • This paper presents a model of both tonic and phasic dopamine (DA) effects on maintenance of working memory representations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The central hypothesis is that DA modulates the efficacy of inputs to prefrontal pyramidal neurons to prevent interferences for active maintenance. Phasic DA release, due to DA neurons discharges, acts at a short time-scale (a few seconds), while the tonic mode of DA release, independent of DA neurons firing, acts at a long time-scale (a few minutes). The overall effect of DA modulation is modeled as a threshold restricting incoming inputs arriving on PFC neurons. Phasic DA release temporary increases this threshold while tonic DA release progressively increases the basal level of this threshold. Thus, unlike the previous gating theory of phasic DA release, proposing that it facilitates incoming inputs at the time of their arrival, the effect of phasic DA release is supposed to restrict..
    • 2007
    • Yukiori Goto et al.
    • The Yin and Yang of Dopamine Release
    • Dopamine has undergone extensive investigation due to its known involvement in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. In particular, studies into pathological conditions have focused on the roles of high amplitude, phasically evoked dopamine release in regions such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum. However, research has shown that dopamine release can be more complex than just phasic release; thus, there is also a tonic, background dopamine release, with alterations in tonic dopamine release likely having unique and important functional roles. Unfortunately, however, tonic dopamine release has received relatively little attention. In this review, we summarize our recent studies and discuss how modulation of the dopamine system, both in terms of phasic activation and attenuation of tonic dopamine are important for the functions of brain regions receiving this dopamine innervation, and that imbalances in these dopamine release mechanisms may play a significant role in..
    • 2006
    • Michael J. Frank et al.
    • A Mechanistic Account of Striatal Dopamine Function in Human Cognition: Psychopharmacological Studies With Cabergoline and Haloperidol
    • The authors test a neurocomputational model of dopamine function in cognition by administering to healthy participants low doses of D 2 agents cabergoline and haloperidol. The model suggests that DA dynamically modulates the balance of Go and No-Go basal ganglia pathways during cognitive learning and performance. Cabergoline impaired, while haloperidol enhanced, Go learning from positive rein- forcement, consistent with presynaptic drug effects. Cabergoline also caused an overall bias toward Go responding, consistent with postsynaptic action. These same effects extended to working memory and attentional domains, supporting the idea that the basal ganglia/dopamine system modulates the updating of prefrontal representations. Drug effects interacted with baseline working memory span in all tasks. Taken together, the results support a unified account of the role of dopamine in modulating cognitive processes that depend on the basal ganglia.
    • 2003
    • Stan B Floresco et al.
    • Afferent modulation of dopamine neuron firing differentially regulates tonic and phasic dopamine transmission
    • The mesolimbic dopamine system is centrally involved in reward and goal-directed behavior, and it has been implicated in multiple psychiatric disorders. Understanding the mechanism by which dopamine participates in these activities requires comprehension of the dynamics of dopamine release. Here we report dissociable regulation of dopamine neuron discharge by two separate afferent systems in rats; inhibition of pallidal afferents selectively increased the population activity of dopamine neurons, whereas activation of pedunculopontine inputs increased burst firing. Only the increase in population activity increased ventral striatal dopamine efflux. After blockade of dopamine reuptake, however, enhanced bursting increased dopamine efflux three times more than did enhanced population activity. These results provide insight into multiple regulatory systems that modulate dopamine system function: burst firing induces massive synaptic dopamine release, which is rapidly removed by reuptake ..
    • 2000
    • Abhijit Chaudhuri et al.
    • Fatigue and basal ganglia
    • Fatigue is a common symptom in neurology and occurs in the diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. In order to understand the mechanism of fatigue, it is important to distinguish symptoms of peripheral neuromuscular fatigue from the symptoms of physical and mental fatigue characteristic of disorders like Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis. We have introduced and defined the concept of central fatigue for the latter disorders. We have further proposed, with supportive neuropathological data, that central fatigue may occur due to a failure in the integration of the limbic input and the motor functions within the basal ganglia affecting the striatal–thalamic–frontal cortical system.
    • 2008
    • Frédéric Brischoux et al.
    • Phasic excitation of dopamine neurons in ventral VTA by noxious stimuli
    • Midbrain dopamine neurons play central roles in reward processing. It is widely assumed that all dopamine neurons encode the same information. Some evidence, however, suggests functional differences between subgroups of dopamine neurons, particularly with respect to processing nonrewarding, aversive stimuli. To directly test this possibility, we recorded from and juxtacellularly labeled individual ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in anesthetized rats so that we could link precise anatomical position and neurochemical identity with coding for noxious stimuli. Here, we show that dopamine neurons in the dorsal VTA are inhibited by noxious footshocks, consistent with their role in reward processing. In contrast, we find that dopamine neurons in the ventral VTA are phasically excited by footshocks. This observation can explain a number of previously confusing findings that suggested a role for dopamine in processing both rewarding and aversive events. Taken together, our resu..
    • 2004
    • Hui Zhang et al.
    • Frequency-dependent modulation of dopamine release by nicotine
    • Although nicotine activation of dopamine release is implicated in addiction, it also desensitizes nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), leading to a prolonged depression of evoked dopamine release. Here we show that nicotine's effects depend on the firing pattern of dopamine neurons, so that while desensitization of nAChRs indeed curbs dopamine released by stimuli emulating tonic firing, it allows a rapid rise in dopamine from stimuli emulating phasic firing patterns associated with incentive/salience paradigms. Nicotine may thus enhance the contrast of dopamine signals associated with behavioral cues.
    • 2012
    • Sarah Threlfell et al.
    • Striatal Dopamine Release Is Triggered by Synchronized Activity in Cholinergic Interneurons
    • Striatal dopamine plays key roles in our normal and pathological goal-directed actions. To understand dopamine function, much attention has focused on how midbrain dopamine neurons modulate their firing patterns. However, we identify a presynaptic mechanism that triggers dopamine release directly, bypassing activity in dopamine neurons. We paired electrophysiological recordings of striatal channelrhodopsin2-expressing cholinergic interneurons with simultaneous detection of dopamine release at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in striatal slices. We reveal that activation of cholinergic interneurons by light flashes that cause only single action potentials in neurons from a small population triggers dopamine release via activation of nicotinic receptors on dopamine axons. This event overrides ascending activity from dopamine neurons and, furthermore, is reproduced by activating ChR2-expressing thalamostriatal inputs, which synchronize cholinergic interneurons in vivo. These findings indica..
    • 2004
    • Mark A. Ungless
    • Dopamine: the salient issue
    • There is general agreement that midbrain dopamine neurons play key roles in reward processing. What is more controversial is the role they play in processing salient stimuli that are not rewarding. This controversy has arisen for three main reasons. First, salient sensory stimuli such as tones and lights, which are assumed not to be rewarding, increase dopamine neuron activity. Second, aversive stimuli increase firing in a minority of putative dopamine neurons. Third, dopamine release is increased following aversive stimuli. Consequently, it has been suggested that these midbrain dopamine neurons are activated by all salient stimuli, rather than specifically by rewards. However, reconsideration of these issues, in light of new findings, suggests this controversy can be resolved in favour of reward theories.
    • 2009
    • Matthew J. Wanat et al.
    • Phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors and drug abuse
    • Short phasic bursts of neuronal activity in dopamine neurons produce rapid and transient increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations throughout the mesocorticolimbic system, which are associated with the initiation of goal-directed behaviors. It is well established that acute exposure to many addictive drugs produce increases in tonic dopamine levels that occur on the order of minutes. However, recent studies suggest that abused drugs similarly enhance phasic dopamine release events that occur on a subsecond time scale. Furthermore, drug experience modulates the synaptic and intrinsic properties of dopamine neurons, which could affect dopamine burst firing and phasic dopamine release. This review will provide a general introduction to the mesolimbic dopamine system, as well as the primary methods used to detect dopamine neurons and dopamine release. We present the role of phasic dopamine release in appetitive behaviors in the context of contemporary theories regarding the func..