Science posts

See science posts on page 39 below.

    • 2014
    • Robert A. Mason et al.
    • Physics instruction induces changes in neural knowledge representation during successive stages of learning
    • Incremental instruction on the workings of a set of mechanical systems induced a progression of changes in the neural representations of the systems. The neural representations of four mechanical systems were assessed before, during, and after three phases of incremental instruction (which first provided information about the system components, then provided partial causal information, and finally provided full functional information). In 14 participants, the neural representations of four systems (a bathroom scale, a fire extinguisher, an automobile braking system, and a trumpet) were assessed using three recently developed techniques: (1) machine learning and classification of multi-voxel patterns; (2) localization of consistently responding voxels; and (3) representational similarity analysis (RSA). The neural representations of the systems progressed through four stages, or states, involving spatially and temporally distinct multi-voxel patterns: (1) initially, the representation..
    • 2013
    • Alex Clarke et al.
    • From Perception to Conception: How Meaningful Objects Are Processed over Time
    • To recognize visual objects, our sensory perceptions are transformed through dynamic neural interactions into meaningful representations of the world but exactly how visual inputs invoke object meaning remains unclear. To address this issue, we apply a regression approach to magnetoencephalography data, modeling perceptual and conceptual variables. Key conceptual measures were derived from semantic feature–based models claiming shared features (e.g., has eyes) provide broad category information, while distinctive features (e.g., has a hump) are additionally required for more specific object identification. Our results show initial perceptual effects in visual cortex that are rapidly followed by semantic feature effects throughout ventral temporal cortex within the first 120 ms. Moreover, these early semantic effects reflect shared semantic feature information supporting coarse category-type distinctions. Post-200 ms, we observed the effects along the extent of ventral tempo..
    • 2009
    • Joel L. Voss et al.
    • Finding meaning in novel geometric shapes influences electrophysiological correlates of repetition and dissociates perceptual and conceptual priming
    • Repeatedly viewing an object can engender fluency-related implicit memory for perceptual and conceptual attributes, as indexed in tests of perceptual and conceptual priming, respectively. Stimuli with minimal pre-experimental meaning allow direct comparisons between these two types of priming and explorations of whether corresponding neural mechanisms differ. We therefore examined electrophysiological correlates of perceptual and conceptual priming for minimalist geometric shapes (squiggles). Response time measures of conceptual priming were evident for squiggles rated by individual subjects as most meaningful, but not for those rated least meaningful. Conceptual-priming magnitude was proportional across individuals to the amplitude of FN400 brain potentials, but only for meaningful squiggles. Perceptual priming was evident for squiggles irrespective of meaningfulness, and perceptual-priming magnitude was proportional to the amplitude of frontal P170 potentials. These findings theref..
    • 2007
    • Haline E. Schendan et al.
    • Neurophysiological Evidence for the Time Course of Activation of Global Shape, Part, and Local Contour Representations during Visual Object Categorization and Memory
    • Categorization of visual objects entails matching a percept to long-term representations of structural knowledge. This object model selection is central to theories of human visual cognition, but the representational format(s) is largely unknown. To characterize these neural representations, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to fragmented objects during an indirect memory test were compared when only local contour features, but not global shapes of the object and its parts, differed between encoding and retrieval experiences. The ERP effects revealed that the format of object representations varies across time according to the particular neural processing and memory system currently engaged. An occipito-temporal P2(00) showed implicit memory modulation to items that repeatedly engaged similar perceptual grouping processes but not items that merely reinstantiated visual features. After 500 msec, memory modulation of a late positive complex, indexing secondary categorization and/or..
    • 2007
    • Haline E. Schendan et al.
    • Where Vision Meets Memory: Prefrontal–Posterior Networks for Visual Object Constancy during Categorization and Recognition
    • Objects seen from unusual relative to more canonical views require more time to categorize and recognize, and, according to object model verification theories, additionally recruit prefrontal processes for cognitive control that interact with parietal processes for mental rotation. To test this using functional magnetic resonance imaging, people categorized and recognized known objects from unusual and canonical views. Canonical views activated some components of a default network more on categorization than recognition. Activation to unusual views showed that both ventral and dorsal visual pathways, and prefrontal cortex, have key roles in visual object constancy. Unusual views activated object-sensitive and mental rotation (and not saccade) regions in ventrocaudal intraparietal, transverse occipital, and inferotemporal sulci, and ventral premotor cortex for verification processes of model testing on any task. A collateral–lingual sulci “place” area activated for m..
    • 2008
    • Haline E. Schendan et al.
    • Object knowledge during entry-level categorization is activated and modified by implicit memory after 200 ms
    • The timing of activating memory about visual objects is important for theories of human cognition but largely unknown, especially for tasks like entry level categorization that activate semantic memory. We tested an implicit memory-categorization “equivalence” hypothesis of multiple memory systems theory that a cortical system that stores structural knowledge to support entry level categorization also stores long-term, perceptual implicit memory, resulting in priming of this knowledge. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to impoverished pictures of new and repeated objects that were similar in perceptual properties but differed in categorization success. The cortical dynamics of object knowledge were defined using categorization ratings and naming. As predicted, rating, naming, and repetition effects on a frontocentral N350 show that implicit memory modifies the object knowledge network supporting categorization. This ERP is a complex of components between..
    • 2015
    • Dalila Burin et al
    • Are Movements Necessary for the Sense of Body Ownership? Evidence from the Rubber Hand Illusion in Pure Hemiplegic Patients
    • A question still debated within cognitive neuroscience is whether signals present during actions significantly contribute to the emergence of human’s body ownership. In the present study, we aimed at answer this question by means of a neuropsychological approach. We administered the classical rubber hand illusion paradigm to a group of healthy participants and to a group of neurological patients affected by a complete left upper limb hemiplegia, but without any propriceptive/tactile deficits. The illusion strength was measured both subjectively (i.e., by a self-report questionnaire) and behaviorally (i.e., the location of one’s own hand is shifted towards the rubber hand). We aimed at examining whether, and to which extent, an enduring absence of movements related signals affects body ownership. Our results showed that patients displayed, respect to healthy participants, stronger illusory effects when the left (affected) hand was stimulated and no effects when the..
    • 1998
    • John D. E. Gabrieli et al
    • The role of left prefrontal cortex in language and  memory
    • This article reviews attempts to characterize the mental operations mediated by left inferior prefrontal cortex, especially the anterior and inferior portion of the gyrus, with the functional neuroimaging techniques of positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activations in this region occur during semantic, relative to nonsemantic, tasks for the generation of words to semantic cues or the classification of words or pictures into semantic categories. This activation appears in the right prefrontal cortex of people known to be atypically right-hemisphere dominant for language. In this region, activations are associated with meaningful encoding that leads to superior explicit memory for stimuli and deactivations with implicit semantic memory (repetition priming) for words and pictures. New findings are reported showing that patients with global amnesia show deactivations in the same region associated with repetition priming, that activation in this region..
    • 2015
    • Irene Trilla Gros et al
    • The plasticity of the mirror system: How reward learning modulates cortical motor simulation of others
    • Cortical motor simulation supports the understanding of others' actions and intentions. This mechanism is thought to rely on the mirror neuron system (MNS), a brain network that is active both during action execution and observation. Indirect evidence suggests that (alpha/beta) mu suppression, an electroencephalographic (EEG) index of MNS activity, is modulated by reward. In this study we aimed to test the plasticity of the MNS by directly investigating the link between (alpha/beta) mu suppression and reward. 40 individuals from a general population sample took part in an evaluative conditioning experiment, where different neutral faces were associated with high or low reward values. In the test phase, EEG was recorded while participants viewed videoclips of happy expressions made by the conditioned faces. Alpha/beta mu suppression (identified using event-related desynchronisation of specific independent components) in response to rewarding faces was found to be greater than for non-..
    • 2014
    • Arnaud D’Argembeau et al
    • Brains creating stories of selves: the neural basis of autobiographical reasoning
    • Personal identity critically depends on the creation of stories about the self and one’s life. The present study investigates the neural substrates of autobiographical reasoning, a process central to the construction of such narratives. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants approached a set of personally significant memories in two different ways: in some trials, they remembered the concrete content of the events (autobiographical remembering), whereas in other trials they reflected on the broader meaning and implications of their memories (autobiographical reasoning). Relative to remembering, autobiographical reasoning recruited a left-lateralized network involved in conceptual processing [including the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and angular gyrus]. The ventral MPFC—an area that may function to generate personal/affective meaning—was not consistently engaged during ..