Science posts

See science posts on page 12 below.

    • 2012
    • Michael W. Cole et. al
    • Global Connectivity of Prefrontal Cortex Predicts Cognitive Control and Intelligence
    • Control of thought and behavior is fundamental to human intelligence. Evidence suggests a frontoparietal brain network implements such cognitive control across diverse contexts. We identify a mechanism—global connectivity—by which components of this network might coordinate control of other networks. A lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) region's activity was found to predict performance in a high control demand working memory task and also to exhibit high global connectivity. Critically, global connectivity in this LPFC region, involving connections both within and outside the frontoparietal network, showed a highly selective relationship with individual differences in fluid intelligence. These findings suggest LPFC is a global hub with a brainwide influence that facilitates the ability to implement control processes central to human intelligence.
    • 2006
    • Jean Decety et al.
    • A Social-Neuroscience Perspective on Empathy
    • In recent years, abundant evidence from behavioral and cognitive studies and functional-imaging experiments has indicated that individuals come to understand the emotional and affective states expressed by others with the help of the neural architecture that produces such states in themselves. Such a mechanism gives rise to shared representations, which constitutes one important aspect of empathy, although not the sole one. We suggest that other components, including people's ability to monitor and regulate cognitive and emotional processes to prevent confusion between self and other, are equally necessary parts of a functional model of empathy. We discuss data from recent functional-imaging studies in support of such a model and highlight the role of specific brain regions, notably the insula, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the right temporo-parietal region. Because this model assumes that empathy relies on dissociable information-processing mechanisms, it predicts a variety of ..
    • 2000
    • Norbert Jaušovec
    • Differences in Cognitive Processes Between Gifted, Intelligent, Creative, and Average Individuals While Solving Complex Problems: An EEG Study
    • This study investigated the differences in cognitive processes related to creativity and intelligence using EEG coherence and power measures in the lower (α1=7.9–10.0 Hz) and upper alpha band (α2=10.1–12.9 Hz). In two experiments, gifted, creative, intelligent subjects, and individuals of average ability solved closed and open problems while their EEG was recorded. The analysis of EEG measures in Experiment 1 indicated that highly intelligent individuals (HIQ—gifted and intelligent) showed higher alpha power (less mental activity) and more cooperation between brain areas when solving closed problems than did average intelligent individuals (AIQ—creative and average). Much more pronounced were the differences in EEG patterns obtained in Experiment 2. Highly creative individuals (HC—gifted and creative) displayed less mental activity than did average creative individuals (AC—intelligent and average) when en..
    • 1996
    • Richard P. Ebstein et al.
    • Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of Novelty Seeking
    • Human personality traits which can be reliably measured by any of a number of rating scales, show a considerable heritable component1,2. The tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) is one such instrument and was designed by Cloninger to measure four distinct domains of temperament — Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence — that are hypothesized to be based on distinct neurochemical and genetic substrates. Cloninger proposed that individual variations in the Novelty Seeking trait are mediated by genetic variability in dopamine transmission2. Individuals who score higher than average on the TPQ Novelty Seeking scale are characterized as impulsive, exploratory, fickle, excitable, quick-tempered and extravagant, whereas those who score lower than average tend to be reflective, rigid, loyal, stoic, slow-tempered and frugal. We now show that higher than average Novelty Seeking test scores in a group of 124 unrelated Israeli subjects are signif..
    • 2012
    • Alex Fornito et al.
    • Competitive and cooperative dynamics of large-scale brain functional networks supporting recollection
    • Analyses of functional interactions between large-scale brain networks have identified two broad systems that operate in apparent competition or antagonism with each other. One system, termed the default mode network (DMN), is thought to support internally oriented processing. The other system acts as a generic external attention system (EAS) and mediates attention to exogenous stimuli. Reports that the DMN and EAS show anticorrelated activity across a range of experimental paradigms suggest that competition between these systems supports adaptive behavior. Here, we used functional MRI to characterize functional interactions between the DMN and different EAS components during performance of a recollection task known to coactivate regions of both networks. Using methods to isolate task-related, context-dependent changes in functional connectivity between these systems, we show that increased cooperation between the DMN and a specific right-lateralized frontoparietal component of the E..
    • 2004
    • McCraty R et al.
    • Electrophysiological evidence of intuition: part 1. The surprising role of the heart.
    • OBJECTIVES: This study aims to contribute to a scientific understanding of intuition, a process by which information normally outside the range of conscious awareness is perceived by the psychophysiological systems. The first objective, presented in two empirical papers (Part 1 and Part 2), was to replicate and extend the results of previous experiments demonstrating that the body can respond to an emotionally arousing stimulus seconds before it is actually experienced. The second objective, to be presented in a third paper (Part 3), is to develop a theory that explains how the body receives and processes information involved in intuitive perception. DESIGN: The study used a counterbalanced crossover design, in which 30 calm and 15 emotionally arousing pictures were presented to 26 participants under two experimental conditions: a baseline condition of normal psychophysiologic function and a condition of physiological coherence. Primary measures included: skin conductance; the ele..
    • 2004
    • McCraty R et al.
    • Electrophysiological evidence of intuition: Part 2. A system-wide process?
    • OBJECTIVES: This study aims to contribute to a scientific understanding of intuition, a process by which information normally outside the range of conscious awareness is perceived by the body's psychophysiological systems. The first objective, presented in two empirical reports (Part 1 and Part 2), was to replicate and extend the results of previous experiments demonstrating that the body can respond to an emotionally arousing stimulus seconds before it is actually experienced. The second objective, to be presented in a forthcoming publication (Part 3), is to develop a theory that explains how the body receives and processes information involved in intuitive perception. DESIGN: The study used a counterbalanced crossover design, in which 30 calm and 15 emotionally arousing pictures were presented to 26 participants under two experimental conditions: a baseline condition of "normal" psychophysiologic function and a condition of physiological coherence. Primary measures inc..
    • 2014
    • Nathaniel Barr et al.
    • Reasoned connections: A dual-process perspective on creative thought
    • A divide exists in the creativity literature as to whether relatively more or less executive processing is beneficial to creative thinking. To explore this issue, we employ an individual differences perspective informed by dual-process theories (DPTs) in which it is assumed that people vary in the extent to which they rely on autonomous (Type 1) or controlled processing (Type 2). We find that those more willing and/or able to engage Type 2 processing are more likely to successfully make creative connections in tasks requiring the unification of disparate elements and the novelty of generated items, but not in some other indices of creativity, namely, cognitive flexibility and fluency. Implications for the role of executive processing in creative thinking are discussed in the context of DPTs. We situate the ability to make remote connections alongside other advanced higher order thinking capabilities that are unique to humans.
    • 2014
    • Maria Grazia Carelli et al.
    • Neural Correlates of Time Perspective
    • The primary aim of this chapter is to summarize our present knowledge about the neural correlates of time perspective and related constructs. We first briefly introduce functional magnetic resonance functional magnetic resonance imaging as a suitable technique to understand the underlying neural mechanisms when studying various constructs of time. Then, we discuss how the use of brain imaging techniques has improved our knowledge regarding concepts of time perspective. In this section it becomes evident that most studies have focused on mental time traveling. Finally we introduce a novel line of research in which we try to study neural correlates of time within the context of the Zimbardo framework. By such approach we are able to include the personality-like construct from the ZTPI to further understand the neural correlates of temporal processing.
    • 2009
    • Fiona McNab et al.
    • Changes in Cortical Dopamine D1 Receptor Binding Associated with Cognitive Training
    • Working memory is a key function for human cognition, dependent on adequate dopamine neurotransmission. Here we show that the training of working memory, which improves working memory capacity, is associated with changes in the density of cortical dopamine D1 receptors. Fourteen hours of training over 5 weeks was associated with changes in both prefrontal and parietal D1 binding potential. This plasticity of the dopamine D1 receptor system demonstrates a reciprocal interplay between mental activity and brain biochemistry in vivo.