Science posts

See science posts on page 22 below.

    • 2005
    • I Hui Lee et al.
    • Correlation between striatal dopamine D2 receptor density and neuroticism in community volunteers
    • The central dopaminergic system, as well as the central serotonergic system, has been reported to be correlated with higher neuroticism. The present study examined the relationship between striatal dopamine D2 receptor density and neuroticism. Neuroticism was assessed with the Maudsley Personality Inventory, and psychiatric morbidity was evaluated with both the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). Single photon emission computed tomography with [123I]iodo-benzamide was used to measure striatal dopamine D2 receptor density. HAM-D scores and psychiatric morbidity in high-neuroticism individuals were higher than in low-neuroticism individuals. Moreover, striatal dopamine D2 receptor densities were significantly correlated with the neuroticism score of the 41 subjects. The central dopaminergic system may play an important role in the neurobiological characteristics of neuroticism.
    • 2011
    • Erik M. Mueller et al.
    • Dopamine Effects on Human Error Processing Depend on Catechol-O-Methyltransferase VAL158MET Genotype
    • Brain dopamine (DA) has been linked to error processing. Because high and low (vs medium) prefrontal cortex (PFC) DA levels may facilitate D2-receptor-related modulations of PFC neural activation patterns, we hypothesized that high and low DA predicts increased error-specific transitions of PFC activity. Male human participants (n 169) were genotyped for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, associated with low (Val) and medium (Met) PFC DA levels. In addition, DRD2TaqIa and 5-HTTLPR, associated with striatal D2 receptor density and serotonin uptake, respectively, were assessed. Participants received placebo or a selective DA–D2 receptor blocker (sulpiride, 200 mg) and performed a Flanker task. EEG was recorded and decomposed into independent brain components (ICs) using independent component analysis. After errors, participants displayed (1) a negative deflection in ICs source- localized to the proximity of the anterior midcingulate cortex [IC-err..
    • 2014
    • Rachel Tomer et al.
    • Love to Win or Hate to Lose? Asymmetry of Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding Predicts Sensitivity to Reward versus Punishment
    • Humans show consistent differences in the extent to which their behavior reflects a bias toward appetitive approach-related behavior or avoidance of aversive stimuli [Elliot, A. J. Approach and avoidance motivation. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 3–14). New York: Psychology Press, 2008]. We examined the hypothesis that in healthy participants this motivational bias (assessed by self-report and by a probabilistic learning task that allows direct comparison of the relative sensitivity to reward and punishment) reflects lateralization of dopamine signaling. Using [F-18]fallypride to measure D2/D3 binding, we found that self-reported motivational bias was predicted by the asymmetry of frontal D2 binding. Similarly, striatal and frontal asymmetries in D2 dopamine receptor binding, rather than absolute binding levels, predicted individual differences in learning from reward versus punishment. These results suggest that normal variation in as..
    • 2015
    • Thorsten Kahnt et al.
    • Dopamine D2-Receptor Blockade Enhances Decoding of Prefrontal Signals in Humans
    • The prefrontal cortex houses representations critical for ongoing and future behavior expressed in the form of patterns of neural activity. Dopamine has long been suggested to play a key role in the integrity of such representations, with D2-receptor activation rendering them flexible but weak. However, it is currently unknown whether and how D2-receptor activation affects prefrontal representations in humans. In the current study, we use dopamine receptor-specific pharmacology and multivoxel pattern-based functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that blocking D2-receptor activation enhances prefrontal representations. Human subjects performed a simple reward prediction task after double-blind and placebo controlled administration of the D2-receptor antagonist amisulpride. Using a whole-brain searchlight decoding approach we show that D2-receptor blockade enhances decoding of reward signals in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Examination of activity patterns sugge..
    • 1999
    • E G J├Ânsson et al.
    • Polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor gene and their relationships to striatal dopamine receptor density of healthy volunteers
    • The density of striatal dopamine D2 receptors has been shown to vary considerably among healthy subjects.1 This variability might be due to genetic or environmental factors. In the present analysis we searched for relationships between dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) polymorphisms and striatal dopamine D2 receptor density in vivo, as measured by positron emission tomography and [11C]raclopride in 56 healthy subjects. There was a significant association between presence of a putative functional DRD2 promoter allele (-141C Del) and high striatal dopamine receptor density (t = 2.32, P = 0.02). In agreement with some previous studies2-4 the presence of the DRD2 TaqIA1 allele was associated with measures of low dopamine receptor density (t = 2.58, P = 0.01). Also the DRD2 TaqIB1 allele was associated with low dopamine receptor density (t = 2.58, P = 0.01) wheras there was no significant relationship between another common silent intronic DRD2 short tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP) and s..
    • 2006
    • Stan B. Floresco et al.
    • Mesocortical dopamine modulation of executive functions: beyond working memory
    • Rationale Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to play an essential role in mediating executive functions such as the working memory. DA exerts these effects by acting on D1 receptors because blockade or stimulation of these receptors in the PFC can impair performance on delayed response tasks. However, comparatively less is known about dopaminergic mechanisms that mediate other executive functions regulated by the PFC. Furthermore, the functional importance of other DA receptor subtypes that reside on PFC neurons (D2 and D4) is unclear. Objectives This review will summarize previous findings and previously unpublished data addressing the contribution of PFC DA to higher-order cognition. We will compare the DA receptor mechanisms, which regulate executive functions such as working memory, behavioral flexibility, and decision-making. Results and conclusions Whereas PFC D1 receptor activity is of primary importance in working memory, D1 a..
    • 2010
    • Jahanshahi M et al.
    • Dopaminergic modulation of striato-frontal connectivity during motor timing in Parkinson's disease.
    • Patients with Parkinson's disease experience motor and perceptual timing difficulties, which are ameliorated by dopaminergic medication. We investigated the neural correlates of motor timing in Parkinson's disease, including the effects of dopaminergic medication on patterns of brain activation. Eight patients with Parkinson's disease and eight healthy controls were scanned with H(15)(2)O positron emission tomography while engaged in three tasks: synchronization (right index finger tapping in synchrony with a tone presented at 1 Hz), continuation (tapping at 1 Hz in the absence of a tone), and a control simple reaction time task. During the first 6 scans, the patients were assessed after overnight withdrawal of medication. Scans 7-12 were completed with the patients in the 'ON' state, after injections of apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist. For the healthy controls, relative to the control reaction time task, motor timing (synchronization + continuation) was associated with sign..
    • 2012
    • Andrew S. Kayser et al.
    • Dopamine, Corticostriatal Connectivity, and Intertemporal Choice
    • Value-based decisions optimize behavioral outcomes. Because delayed rewards are discounted, an increased tendency to choose smaller, immediate rewards can lead to suboptimal choice. Steep discounting of delayed rewards (impulsivity) characterizes subjects with frontal lobe damage and behavioral disorders including substance abuse. Correspondingly, animal studies and indirect evidence in humans suggest that lower dopamine in the frontal cortex contributes to steeper discounting by impairing corticostriatal function. To test this hypothesis directly, we performed a randomized, double-blind, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled study in which we administered the brain penetrant catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor tolcapone or placebo to healthy subjects performing a delay discounting task. Tolcapone significantly increased choice of delayed monetary rewards, and this tolcapone-induced increase covaried with increased BOLD activity in the left ventral putamen and anterior insula. Tolca..
    • 2002
    • Wolfram Schultz
    • Getting Formal with Dopamine and Reward
    • Recent neurophysiological studies reveal that neurons in certain brain structures carry specific signals about past and future rewards. Dopamine neurons display a short-latency, phasic reward signal indicating the difference between actual and predicted rewards. The signal is useful for enhancing neuronal processing and learning behavioral reactions. It is distinctly different from dopamine's tonic enabling of numerous behavioral processes. Neurons in the striatum, frontal cortex, and amygdala also process reward information but provide more differentiated information for identifying and anticipating rewards and organizing goal-directed behavior. The different reward signals have complementary functions, and the optimal use of rewards in voluntary behavior would benefit from interactions between the signals. Addictive psychostimulant drugs may exert their action by amplifying the dopamine reward signal.
    • 2013
    • Kenji Morita et al.
    • Dopaminergic Control of Motivation and Reinforcement Learning: A Closed-Circuit Account for Reward-Oriented Behavior
    • Humans and animals take actions quickly when they expect that the actions lead to reward, reflecting their motivation. Injection of dopamine receptor antagonists into the striatum has been shown to slow such reward-seeking behavior, suggesting that dopamine is involved in the control of motivational processes. Meanwhile, neurophysiological studies have revealed that phasic response of dopamine neurons appears to represent reward prediction error, indicating that dopamine plays central roles in reinforcement learning. However, previous attempts to elucidate the mechanisms of these dopaminergic controls have not fully explained how the motivational and learning aspects are related and whether they can be understood by the way the activity of dopamine neurons itself is controlled by their upstream circuitries. To address this issue, we constructed a closed-circuit model of the corticobasal ganglia system based on recent findings regarding intracortical and corticostriatal circuit archit..

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