Science posts

See science posts on page 8 below.

    • 2011
    • Chunhui Chen et al.
    • Sex Modulates the Associations Between the COMT Gene and Personality Traits
    • Previous research has shown inconsistent findings regarding the relations between the functional Val158Met polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and individual differences in personality traits. This study attempts to overcome some of the weaknesses of previous research, namely, small sample sizes, clinical samples, ethnic stratification, wide age ranges, neglecting sex differences, and single measures of personality traits. A large sample (n=556, 250 male, 306 female) of healthy Chinese college students (mean age=20.5±1 years) was given a battery of personality scales, including the temperament and character inventory-revised, the behavioral inhibition system and behavioral approach system scale, the Beck depression inventory, and the Beck anxiety inventory. Factor analysis of the affect-related personality traits revealed two factors that corresponded to positive (PEM) and negative emotionality (NEM). We found a consistent COMT-by-sex interaction effe..
    • 1999
    • Donna Torrens
    • Individual Differences and the Belief Bias Effect: Mental Models, Logical Necessity, and Abstract Reasoning
    • This study investigated individual differences in the belief bias effect, which is the tendency to accept conclusions because they are believable rather than because they are logically valid. It was observed that the extent of an individual's belief bias effect was unrelated to a number of measures of reasoning competence. Instead, as predicted by mental models theory, it was related to a person's ability to generate alternative representations of premises: the more alternatives a person generated, the less likely they were to show a belief bias effect. In contrast to belief effects, which were predicted by the number of alternatives generated, scores on logical reasoning tasks were predicted by an individual's understanding of the concept of logical necessity. These two mediating variables, ability to generate alternatives and understanding of logical necessity, were themselves predicted by similar variables, such as cognitive motivation and abstract reasoning ability. Our findings ..
    • 2009
    • Colin G. Deyoung and Jeremy R. Gray
    • 20 - Personality neuroscience: explaining individual differences in affect, behaviour and cognition pp. 323-346
    • his chapter reviews the methods and history of personality neuroscience. It then attempts a synthesis of findings across the range of personality traits, as represented primarily by the Big Five. The goal is to determine how the array of findings to date contributes to a larger picture of the relation between variation in the brain and variation in personality. This strategy highlights a point that is considered to be of major conceptual importance, namely that theories of personality must not be limited to a particular domain of information-processing, but must consider individual differences in affect, behaviour and cognition, as well as how these different domains are integrated and interact. Only by taking a broad view will the field be able to fulfil the promise of personality psychology to understand the individual as he or she actually functions as a whole.
    • 2013
    • Joni Y. Sasaki et al.
    • Religion priming differentially increases prosocial behavior among variants of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene
    • Building on gene–environment interaction (G × E) research, this study examines how the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene interacts with a situational prime of religion to influence prosocial behavior. Some DRD4 variants tend to be more susceptible to environmental influences, whereas other variants are less susceptible. Thus, certain life environments may be associated with acts of prosociality for some DRD4 variants but not others. Given that religion can act as an environmental influence that increases prosocial behavior, environmental input in the form of religion priming may have G × E effects. Results showed that participants with DRD4 susceptibility variants were more prosocial when implicitly primed with religion than not primed with religion, whereas participants without DRD4 susceptibility variants were not impacted by priming. This research has implications for understanding why different people may behave prosocially for differe..
    • 2012
    • Elaine N. Aron et al.
    • Sensory Processing Sensitivity - A Review in the Light of the Evolution of Biological Responsivity
    • This article reviews the literature on sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) in light of growing evidence from evolutionary biology that many personality differences in nonhuman species involve being more or less responsive, reactive, flexible, or sensitive to the environment. After briefly defining SPS, it first discusses how biologists studying animal personality have conceptualized this general environmental sensitivity. Second, it reviews relevant previous human personality/temperament work, focusing on crossover interactions (where a trait generates positive or negative outcomes depending on the environment), and traits relevant to specific hypothesized aspects of SPS: inhibition of behavior, sensitivity to stimuli, depth of processing, and emotional/physiological reactivity. Third, it reviews support for the overall SPS model, focusing on development of the Highly Sensitive Person (HSP) Scale as a measure of SPS then on neuroimaging and genetic studies using the scale, all of wh..
    • 2015
    • Siyang Luo et al.
    • Interaction between oxytocin receptor polymorphism and interdependent culture values on human empathy
    • Recent evidence suggests that the association between oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) and emotion-related behavioral/psychological tendencies differs between individuals from East Asian and Western cultures. What remains unresolved is which specific dimension of cultural orientations interacts with OXTR rs53576 to shape these tendencies and whether such gene × culture interactions occurs at both behavioral and neural level. This study investigated whether and how OXTR rs53576 interacts with interdependence—a key dimension of cultural orientations that distinguish between East Asian and Western cultures—to affect human empathy that underlies altruistic motivation and prosocial behavior. Experiment 1 measured interdependence, empathy trait and OXTR rs53576 genotypes of 1536 Chinese participants. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a stronger association between interdependence and empathy trait in G allele carriers compared with A/A hom..
    • 2005
    • Stein MB et al.
    • COMT polymorphisms and anxiety-related personality traits.
    • High neuroticism and low extraversion are characteristic of anxiety-prone individuals. A functional variant in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, the Val158Met ('val/met') polymorphism, has been associated in some prior studies with several phenotypes, including neuroticism. We tested the hypothesis that the val158met polymorphism would be associated with both high neuroticism and low extraversion, making it a plausible candidate locus for anxiety susceptibility. To determine whether val158met is responsible for these effects, we also evaluated the association with haplotypes that included two other SNPs within the COMT gene. We collected a sample of 497 undergraduate college students who were phenotyped on a personality inventory (the NEO-Personality Inventory-Raised (NEO-PI-R)). Subjects were genotyped for three COMT polymorphisms: the well-studied nonsynonymous SNP rs4680 that generates a valine-to-methionine substitution (val158met), rs737865 (near exon #1), and rs1655..
    • 2010
    • Emily Jacobs and Mark D'Esposito
    • Estrogen Shapes Dopamine-Dependent Cognitive Processes: Implications for Women's Health
    • The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is exquisitely sensitive to its neurochemical environment. Minor fluctuations in cortical dopamine (DA) can profoundly alter working memory, a PFC-dependent cognitive function that supports an array of essential human behaviors. Dopamine's action in the PFC follows an inverted U-shaped curve, where an optimal DA level results in maximal function and insufficient or excessive DA impairs PFC function. In animals, 17β-estradiol (the major estrogen in most mammals, referred to henceforth as estradiol) has been shown to enhance DA activity, yet no human study has adequately addressed whether estradiol's impact on cognition occurs by way of modulating specific neurochemical systems. Here we examined the effects of endogenous fluctuations in estradiol on working memory in healthy young women as a function of baseline PFC DA [indexed by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype and, at a finer scale, COMT enzyme activity]. The results demonst..
    • 2000
    • H.L Gallagher et al.
    • Reading the mind in cartoons and stories: an fMRI study of ‘theory of mind’ in verbal and nonverbal tasks
    • Previous functional imaging studies have explored the brain regions activated by tasks requiring ‘theory of mind’—the attribution of mental states. Tasks used have been primarily verbal, and it has been unclear to what extent different results have reflected different tasks, scanning techniques, or genuinely distinct regions of activation. Here we report results from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study (fMRI) involving two rather different tasks both designed to tap theory of mind. Brain activation during the theory of mind condition of a story task and a cartoon task showed considerable overlap, specifically in the medial prefrontal cortex (paracingulate cortex). These results are discussed in relation to the cognitive mechanisms underpinning our everyday ability to ‘mind-read’.
    • 2013
    • Frank Van Overwalle et al.
    • Implicit and explicit social mentalizing: dual processes driven by a shared neural network
    • Recent social neuroscientific evidence indicates that implicit and explicit inferences on the mind of another person (i.e., intentions, attributions or traits), are subserved by a shared mentalizing network. Under both implicit and explicit instructions, ERP studies reveal that early inferences occur at about the same time, and fMRI studies demonstrate an overlap in core mentalizing areas, including the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results suggest a rapid shared implicit intuition followed by a slower explicit verification processes (as revealed by additional brain activation during explicit vs. implicit inferences). These data provide support for a default-adjustment dual-process framework of social mentalizing.

Related

You might be interested in.